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The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who later married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator.


She officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the country is in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean.

The federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the
capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular state.

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<strong>National symbols of Nigeria

Flag Color: Green and white

Designed by: Taiwo Akinkunmi

Motto: Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress

Anthem: Arise, O Compatriots

Capital: Abuja

Largest city: Lagos

Official languages: English

Major languages: Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba

Other languages: Atyap, Birom, Edo,
Fulfulde, Efik, Eleme, Gbagyi, Hyam, Ibibio, Idoma, Igala, Igbira, Ijaw, Ikwerre, Itsekiri, Jju, Jukun, Kanuri, Margi, Nupe, Tiv, Urhobo-Isoko

Religion: Christians, Muslims and Traditional

Demonym(s): Nigerian

Government: Federal presidential constitutional republic

President: Muhammadu Buhari

Vice President: Yemi Osinbajo

Senate President: Ahmed Ibrahim Lawan

House Speaker: Femi Gbajabiamila

Chief Justice: Justice Ibrahim Tanko Muhammad

Legislature: National Assembly

Upper house: Senate

Lower house: House of Representatives

Independence: from the United Kingdom

Unification of Southern and Northern Nigeria: 1914

Declared and recognised: 1 October 1960

Republic declared: 1 October 1963

Current constitution: 29 May 1999

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Total: 923,768 km2 (356,669 sq mi) (32nd)

Water (%): 1.4


2019 estimate: 200,962,417[2] (7th)

2006 census: 140,431,790

Density: 215/km2 (556.8/sq mi) (65th)

GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate

Total: $1.221 trillion[3] (23rd)

Per capita: $6,130 (129th)

GDP (nominal)2019 estimate

Total: $447.013 billion[3] (31st)

Per capita: $2,244 (137th)

Gini (2010) 43.0. medium

HDI (2017) 0.532 low · 157th

Currency: Naira (₦) (NGN)

Time zone: UTC+01:00 (WAT)

Driving side: Left

Calling code: +234

ISO 3166 code NG

Internet: TLD .ng

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Brief history

The has been home to a number of ancient and indigenous kingdoms and states over the millennia. The modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, and took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern of the country Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914.

The British set up administrative and legal structures while practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms.

She became a formally independent federation in 1960. It experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated between democratically elected civilian governments and military dictatorships until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential election considered the first to be reasonably free and fair.

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Giant of Africa

She is often referred to as the “Giant of Africa”, owing to its large population
and economy. With 186 million inhabitants, the country is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world.

She has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under age 18.

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The country is a multinational state as it is inhabited by 250 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba; these ethnic groups speak over 500 different native languages and are identified with a wide variety of cultures.

The official language of the country is Nigerian English, chosen to facilitate linguistic unity at the national level.

She is divided roughly in half between Christians, who live mostly in the southern part of the country, and Muslims, who live mostly in the north.

A minority of the population practice religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities.

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Nigeria economy

She is the world’s 20th largest economy as of 2015, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity respectively. It overtook South Africa to become Africa’s largest economy in 2014. The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent.

She is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank; it has been identified as a regional power on the African continent, a middle power in international affairs, and has also been identified as an emerging global power.

However, it currently has a “low” Human Development Index, ranking 152nd in the world.

She is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are widely seen as the globe’s next “BRIC-like” economies. It is also listed among the “Next Eleven” economies set to become among the biggest in the world.

She is one of the founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC.


Nigeria Law

There are three distinct systems of law in Nigeria:

Common law, derived from its British colonial past, and a development of its own after independence;

Customary law, derived from indigenous traditional norms and practice, including the dispute resolution meetings of pre-colonial Yorubaland secret societies and the Ẹ̀kpẹ̀ and Ọ̀kọ́ńkọ̀ of Igboland and Ibibioland;

Sharia law, used only in the predominantly Muslim northern states of the country. It is an Islamic legal system that had been used long before the colonial administration.

In late 1999, Zamfara emphasised its use, with eleven other northern states following suit. These states are Kano,
Katsina, Niger, Bauchi, Borno, Kaduna, Gombe, Sokoto, Jigawa, Yobe, and Kebbi.

The country has a judicial branch, the highest court of which is the Supreme Court of Nigeria.

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Nigeria Military

Nigerian Armed Forces

The Nigerian military are charged with protecting the Federal Republic of Nigeria, promoting Nigeria’s global security interests, and supporting peacekeeping efforts, especially in West Africa. This is in support of the doctrine sometimes called Pax Nigeriana.

The Nigerian Military consist of an army, a navy, and an air force. The military in the country have played a major role in the country’s history since independence.

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 Administrative divisions

Major cities

City Population

Lagos. 8,048,430

Kano. 3,931,300

Ibadan. 2,559,853

Benin City. 1,147,188

Port Harcourt. 1,005,904

The country is divided into thirty-six states and one Federal Capital Territory, which are further sub-divided into 774 Local Government Areas (LGAs).

In some contexts, the states are aggregated into six geopolitical zones: North West, North East, North Central, South East, South South, and South West.

As of the 2006 census, she has eight cities with a population of over 1 million people (from largest to smallest): Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Benin City and Port Harcourt. Lagos is the largest city in Africa, with a population of over 12 million in its urban area.

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States in Nigeria



Akwa Ibom






Cross River




























TerritoryFederal Capital Territory (FCT)

Ethnic groups

She has more than 250 ethnic groups, with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich ethnic diversity.

The three largest ethnic groups are the Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo, together accounting for more than 70% of the population, while the Edo, Ijaw, Fulɓe, Kanuri, Urhobo-Isoko, Ibibio, Ebira, Nupe, Gbagyi, Jukun, Igala, Idoma and Tiv comprise between 25 and 30%; other minorities make up the remaining 5%.

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There are 521 languages that have been spoken in the country; nine of them are now extinct.

In some areas of the country, ethnic groups speak more than one language. The official language of Nigerian is English, and was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country, owing to the influence of British colonisation that ended in 1960.

Health sector

Health care delivery in the country is a concurrent responsibility of the three tiers of government in the country, and the private sector.

Niger has been reorganising its health system since the Bamako Initiative of 1987, which formally promoted community-based methods of increasing accessibility of drugs and health care services to the population, in part by implementing user fees.

The new strategy dramatically increased accessibility through community-based health care reform, resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services.

A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost.


Education sector

The country provides free, government-supported education, but attendance is not compulsory at any level, and certain groups, such as nomads and the handicapped, are under-served.

The education system consists of six years of primary school, three years of junior secondary school, three years of senior secondary school, and four, five or six years of university education leading to a bachelor’s degree.

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Tourism in the country centers largely on events, due to the country’s ample amount of ethnic groups, but also includes rain forests, savannah, waterfalls, and other natural attractions.

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Nigerian literature works

Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe is Africa’s most popular and best selling literary piece ever, translated into over 40 languages across Africa and around the world.

Nigerian citizens have authored many influential works of post-colonial literature in the English language.

Nigeria’s best-known writers are Wole Soyinka, the first African Nobel Laureate in Literature, and Chinua Achebe, best known for the novel Things Fall Apart (1958) and his controversial critique of Joseph Conrad.


Music and film production

She has had a huge role in the development of various genres of African music, including West African highlife, Afrobeat, Afrobeats, and palm-wine music, which fuses native rhythms with techniques that have been linked to the Congo, Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica and worldwide.

The Nigerian film industry is known as Nollywood a blend of Nigeria and Hollywood and is now the 2nd-largest producer of movies in the world.

Nigerian film studios are based in Lagos, Kano and Enugu, forming a major portion of the local economy of these cities.

Nigerian cinema is Africa’s largest movie industry in terms of both value and the number of movies produced per year.

Although Nigerian films have been produced since the 1960s, the country’s film industry has been aided by the rise of affordable digital filming and editing technologies.

Cuisine and food

Nigerian cuisine, like West African cuisine in general, is known for its richness and variety. Many different spices, herbs and flavourings are used in conjunction with palm oil or groundnut oil to create deeply flavoured sauces and soups often made very hot with chili peppers.

Nigerian feasts are colourful and lavish, while aromatic market and roadside snacks cooked on barbecues or fried in oil are plentiful and varied.


Football is largely considered Nigeria’s national sport and the country has its own Premier League of football.

Nigeria’s national football team, known as the “Super Eagles”, has made the World Cup on Six occasions 1994, 1998, 2002, 2010, 2014, and most recently in 2018.

In April 1994, the Super Eagles ranked 5th in the FIFA World Rankings, the highest ranking achieved by an African football team.

They won the African Cup of Nations in 1980, 1994, and 2013, and have also hosted the U-17 & U-20 World Cup.

They won the gold medal for football in the 1996 Summer Olympics (in which they beat Argentina) becoming the first African football team to win gold in Olympic Football.

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